India’s Hydro Power Initiative – 12th Plan

Energy Requirement of India

According to the Indian Government, the peak power deficit (gap between demand and supply) in the summer 2010 was 10.8 per cent. The Union power ministry has set a target of 100 GW of additional power generation between 2012 and 2017. By far, India has achieved the greatest success in the wind power with an installed capacity of 12,009 MW. Solar power is another focus area. The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) seeks to increase grid-connected solar capacity to 1 GW by 2013, 20 GW by 2020, and 22 GW by 2022 to ward off energy crisis.

As of December 2010, the installed power generation capacity of India stood at 169 GW and is trying to add another 78 GW by 2012. The demand for electricity is expected to be about 1,000 GW by 2030. It has invested heavily in renewable energy, particularly in the wind energy – current installed capacity is about 13 GW. It also aims to produce 20 GW from solar power and 30 GW from nuclear energy in next 10-15 years. An investment of US $55 billion is expected by 2015 in the renewable energy sector, generating 35 GW power.

Besides the increasing demand for power, gross inefficiencies and chaotic functioning of the power distribution puts further pressure on power supply. For instance, the transmission and distribution networks are highly inefficient – experts say that there is 30 – 35% power loss.

Hydro Power in the 12th Plan

To achieve the ambitious program of hydro capacity addition in the 12th Plan period, shelf of hydro power projects with aggregate installed capacity of 58,573 MW were identified by CEA in the year 2006-07. These are remainder of the total 107 GW capacity. The status of preparation of DPR of the shelf of projects is being monitored by CEA on regular basis. These include some very large projects identified in Arunachal Pradesh – Etalin (4000 MW), Demwe (3000 MW), Dibang (3000 MW), and Lohit (3000 MW). It remains to be seen when and whether they will be actually completed.

Of the planned capacity addition of 90,000 MW at the end of 12th Plan (2012-2017), about 30,000 MW was planned from hydropower. However, looking at the feasibility of implementation during the 12th plan (2012-17), 109 candidates have been identified aggregating to 30920 MW – all these fall under ‘A’ or ‘B1’ category. The list also includes 12 projects (worth 1855 MW) slipping from the 11th Plan. State-wise (and sector-wise) break-up of these projects is given below:

Hydropower Projects under 12th Plan

S. No

State

Central Sector

State Sector

Private Sector

Total

Nos.

MW

Nos

MW

Nos

MW

Nos

MW

1

Arunachal Pradesh

3

1610

0

0

23

7969*

26

9579

2

Uttarakhand

12

4374

7

1655

5

829

24

6858

3

Jammu & Kashmir

4

2450

4

1473

0

0

8

3923

4

Himachal Pradesh

2

816

7

892

6

749

15

2457

5

Sikkim

1

520

0

0

10

1935

11

2455

6

Manipur

2

1566

0

0

0

0

2

1566

7

Andhra Pradesh

0

0

3

1560

0

0

3

1560

8

Meghalaya

0

0

1

54

1

450

2

504

9

Tamil Nadu

0

0

1

500

0

0

1

500

10

Karnataka

0

0

2

400

0

0

2

400

11

Kerala

0

0

6

373

0

0

6

373

12

Punjab

0

0

1

168

1

75

2

243

13

West Bengal

1

120

2

66

0

0

3

186

14

Madhya Pradesh

3

166

0

0

0

0

3

166

15

Assam

0

0

1

150

0

0

1

150

Total

28

11622

35

7291

46

12007

109

30920

*This includes only 600 MW from the 2400 MW Siang Lower Project during the 12th Plan

Of these projects, about 25300 MW capacity appear fully feasible; however, 13 projects aggregating about 5600 MW still require expediting in terms of early completion of their DPRs and other statutory clearances.

Delayed Projects from the 11th Plan

As per the program approved by the Planning Commission, of the total capacity addition during the 11th Plan of 78,700 MW included 15,627 MW of hydro power. From this, projects aggregating 4750 MW have faced delays for various reasons and are unlikely to be completed before 2012 (end of 11th Plan); they will most likely be completed during the 12th Plan. These are:

S. N. Project Name Executing Agency Installed capacity MW
1 Parvati Stage-II, Himachal Pradesh NHPC 800
2 Loharingagpala, Uttarakhand NTPC 600
3 Tapovan Vishnugad, Uttarakhand NTPC 520
4 Subansiri Lower, Arunachal Pradesh NHPC 2000
5 Kameng, Arunachal Pradesh NEEPCO 600
6 Sawara Kudu, Himachal Pradesh PVC 110
7 Lower Jurala, Andhra Pradesh APGENCO 120

Total

  4750

Therefore, the aim of wiping out all power shortage by the end 11th Plan is unlikely to be fulfilled in reality.

Fund Requirement

During the 12th Plan, 25,316 MW capacity addition appears feasible. To achieve this, funds requirement during the 11th and 12th Plans would be of the order of Rs 68,924 crores and Rs 82,972 crores, respectively as per the following break up.

Expenditure Period

Central Sector

State Sector

Private Sector

Total

During 11th Plan

20,041

22,306

26,577

68,924

During 12th Plan*

28,475

31,838

22,659

82,972

Total

48,516

54,144

49,236

1,51,896

*Fund for 12th Plan projects worth 25,316 MW only

In Summary

Looking at the actual progress of various projects and their delays, it would be a significant achievement if 40,000 MW hydropower could be added by the end of 2017 (total from the 11th and 12th Plan). Larger projects face significant resistance from the likely displaced people and environmental activists. It is an area where the governments should pay particular attention, and that requires political will and leadership.

Hydroelectric Power Projects: Latest Threat to Himalayan Ecosystem

Hydro Projects in Tibet: Thirsty Dragon, Restless Neighbors

Environmental Impacts of Hydropower Plants

About Goodpal

I am a firm believer in healthy people (mind and body both), healthy societies and healthy environment. I also undertake content writing and documentation projects. Please feel free to comment, share and broadcast your views. If you wish to write for this blog, please contact me at vj.agra@yahoo.com Thanks for stopping by. Have a Good Day!
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